By Marie Costa
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Extra info for Abortion: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues)
Casey 127 Bray v. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic 129 Madsen v. S. Abortion Statistics with Those of Other Countries 139 Characteristics of Women Having Abortions 141 Age Group Differences 145 Racial, Socioeconomic, Marital Status, and Religious Differences 146 Previous Abortions and/or Live Births 147 Weeks of Gestation 147 Type of Abortion Technique Used 147 Why Women Have Abortions 148 Reasons for Having Late Abortions 150 Abortion-Related Deaths 151 Deaths from Illegal Abortions 151 Deaths from Legal Abortions 153 Risk of Death from Abortion versus Term Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use 153 Page x Abortion Access 154 The Decline in Abortion Services 154 Harassment of Abortion Providers and Antiabortion Violence 157 The Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act of 1994 160 Public Opinion and Abortion 161 Abortion Techniques 163 Instrumental Techniques 163 Menstrual Extraction 163 Vacuum Aspiration (Suction Curettage) 164 Dilatation and Curettage 166 Dilatation and Evacuation 166 Medical Induction Techniques 167 Intraamniotic Instillations 167 Prostaglandins 168 Mifepristone (RU 486): The French "Abortion Pill," 169 Other Drugs 172 Major Surgery Techniques 173 Hysterotomy and Hysterectomy 173 Folk Methods 173 Abortion Complications and Long-Term Impact 174 Surgical Abortion 174 Medical Abortions 175 Cardiovascular Complications 176 Birth Defects 176 Subsequent Pregnancies 177 The Long-Term Impact of Abortion 177 Problems in Determining Long-Term Risks of Abortion 177 Effects on Subsequent Pregnancies 177 Increased Risk of Breast Cancer 178 Psychological Effects of Abortion 178 Characteristics of Women Suffering Psychological Distress after Abortions 180 Page xi Overview of Embryonic and Fetal Development 180 Fertilization (2 Weeks LMP) 180 Implantation (3 to 4 Weeks LMP) 181 Embryonic Development (5 to 8 Weeks LMP) 181 Fetal Development (9 to 40 Weeks LMP) 182 Suggestions for Further Reading 184 References 184 4.
The Maine law also includes an exception for therapeutic abortions in the event the mother's life is threatened. In practice, most of the early antiabortion laws are enforced laxly, if at all. All of them were passed, not on their own, but as parts of major revisions of criminal codes or of omnibus crime bills. As Mohr (1978) says, "This was significant because it indicates that there was no substantial popular outcry for antiabortion activity; or, conversely, no evidence of public disapproval of the nation's traditional common law attitudes.
A pregnant woman may understand that an abortion means the death of a living human being and still choose to abort. A "sidewalk counselor" may understand that continuing a pregnancy will disrupt or even devastate a woman's life and still urge her to have the baby. By the same token, a woman who always believed that if she got pregnant she would have an abortion may be unwilling to carry through with her plan, and a Page xiv woman who has picketed an abortion clinic may find herself a patient at that very clinic.
Abortion: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues) by Marie Costa