By S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld
This booklet analyzes in what method activation guidelines effect on given styles of social citizenship that predominate in nationwide contexts. It argues that the liberal paradigm of activation brought into labour industry guidelines in all Western ecu states demanding situations the categorical styles of social citizenship in every one nation.
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Extra resources for Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship
It therefore might be questionable whether the delegation to local actors or subcontracting represents an appropriate move. 5. Analysing the impact of activation policies We here consider ‘activation strategies’ in broad terms that go beyond just one or a couple of narrow social policy programme(s) aiming at bringing people back into work. On the contrary, we suggest focusing the nexus of work and welfare in a broader sense and include labour market regulation, active labour market policies and income maintenance schemes in the analysis (Bonoli, 2003).
A three-dimensional concept of autonomy Current social policy debates consider the concept of autonomy as ambiguous: Liberal interpretations associate autonomy with individual (economic) independence (Christman, 2003), while feminist (Mackenzie and Stoljar, 2000) – but also educational science scholars (Leu and Krappmann, 1999) – emphasize the relational character of the concept. They conceive citizens as socially bound and as interdependent individuals and state that a person’s autonomy is always realized in relation to a speciﬁc individual, social or political context and that it cannot be deﬁned in absolute terms.
The (continental) welfare states’ constitutive tasks, to compensate for risks and to provide social security perspectives – to put it brieﬂy, to support citizens’ autonomy (though selectively) – are challenged by the ongoing activation strategy. The states’ intervention into the unemployment protection systems and employment regulation is particularly important in social insurance states as the well-accepted solidaristic Silke Bothfeld and Sigrid Betzelt 17 insurance-based provision is gradually shifted towards a more taxbased and state-regulated regime, pursuing more individualistic and ‘behaviourist’ objectives, such as a quick reintegration into paid work, setting ‘incentives’ for the unemployed, motivating them to search for work, ameliorating their qualiﬁcations and so on.
Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship by S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld