By S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith
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Extra info for Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of principles and practice
Chest; 137: 1203–16 Airway resistance driving pressure gas flow Driving pressure is the difference between alveolar and mouth pressures, and may be measured using the body plethysmograph. Alternatively, gas flow may be halted repeatedly for a tenth of a second at a time with a shutter; during the brief period of no flow, alveolar pressure may be measured at the mouth. Gas flow can be measured with a pneumotachograph. Most of the resistance resides in the large and mediumsized bronchi; severe damage to the small airways may occur before a measurable increase in resistance.
G. sideroblastic anaemia, thalassaemia. ◗ increased haemolysis. ◗ haemorrhage: - acute. - chronic. g. thalassaemia, iron deficiency, including chronic haemorrhage, chronic disease. ◗ normochromic, macrocytic: vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, alcoholism. g. infection, malignancy, renal failure, endocrine disease; aplastic anaemia, bone marrow disease or infiltration. g. g. iron, vitamin B12. ● Effects: ◗ reduced O2-carrying capacity of blood: fatigue, dyspnoea on exertion, angina. ◗ increased cardiac output, to maintain O2 flux: palpitations, tachycardia, systolic murmurs, cardiac failure.
Caused by: ◗ obligate anaerobes: only grow in the absence of O2. ◗ microaerophilic organisms: only grow under conditions of reduced O2 tension. ◗ facultative anaerobes: capable of growing aerobically or anaerobically. The most clinically important are species of clostridium, bacteroides and actinomyces. Predisposing factors include disruption of mucosal barriers, impaired blood supply, tissue injury and necrosis. Most infecting organisms are endogenous. Infections are accompanied by foulsmelling, putrid pus.
Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of principles and practice by S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith