By Walter Maechtle
This publication is split into chapters masking instrumentation, sedimentation pace runs, density gradient runs, program examples and destiny advancements. specifically, the specified program bankruptcy demonstrates the flexibility and tool of AUC via many attention-grabbing and demanding business examples. hence the booklet concentrates on sensible facets instead of information of centrifugation conception.
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Extra resources for Analytical Ultracentrifugation of Polymers and Nanoparticles (Springer Laboratory)
20 2 Analytical Ultracentrifugation, Instrumentation Fig. 2. Modern analytical ultracentrifuge Optima XL-A/I produced by Beckman-Coulter In the former Beckman Model E, cooling of the chamber was achieved by water cooling of a cladding surrounding the rotor inside the chamber. The heating elements were different from these, and were located at the chamber bottom. This led to temperature gradients within the chamber, and therefore within the rotor itself. The temperature was measured in a very speciﬁc way: a needle was ﬁxed to the bottom of the hanging analytical rotor, and a temperature-dependent electrical resistance was installed inside the rotor.
The partial speciﬁc volume ν¯ is deﬁned as the volume increase obtained if 1g of solute is added to an inﬁnite amount of solvent. Precise knowledge 44 2 Analytical Ultracentrifugation, Instrumentation of this parameter is crucial for the interpretation of sedimentation data. This is because of the small differences in the buoyancy term (1 − ν¯ · ρs ). In fact, it is the most common hindrance for the even more universal use of analytical ultracentrifugation in physicochemical science. Therefore, a lot of work has been spent on this topic, which led to extensive tabulated data of synthetic polymers and biopolymers.
The higher the refractive index of the medium, the lower the velocity of the light. That means that the (small) refractive index difference Δn(r) = (nsolution − nsolvent ), which is proportional to the corresponding concentration c(r) at this radius position, can be monitored very rapidly by interference optics. This is made visible in form of a vertical deviation of the originally parallel interference fringes behind a double (also called Rayleigh) slit (see insert in Fig. 10). The (folded) interference optics as realized in the Optima XL-A/I applies a triggerable laser diode (λ = 675nm) above the rotor as light source.
Analytical Ultracentrifugation of Polymers and Nanoparticles (Springer Laboratory) by Walter Maechtle